wooden box for Mud Density Sensor eusd mud logging unit for oil and gas
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Mud Density Sensor eusd mud logging unit for oil and gas
The mudstone density meter is an instrument to measure the density of mudstone. By measuring the density of mudstone, you can know the pressure change of drilled strataand predict the possible formations with abnormal pressure. The abnormal pore pressure of formations is extremely dangerous to oil wells and it may cause accidents such as well kick, well blowout, well lost, shrinkage of borehole diameter, bit freezing and so on. Characteristics of mudstone to produce ultra high pressure are that the density of mudstone decreases, deviating from normal density trend line of mudstone. In general, the resistivity and acoustic velocity of formations with abnormal pressure are also different and as a result, the resistivity log and acoustic log can be used to detect them. But these log curves can be obtained only after the drilling is complete. Therefore, a method to immediately predict ultra high pressure formations is required, namely, the method to measure the density of mudstone is used to predict abnormal pore pressure of formations.
Measuring mudstone density is to monitor abnormal pressure formation. According to the regulation of mudstone compaction, the porosity of mudstone decrease in exponential function way when the depth are increasing in normal condition, mudstone density increases with the increase of depth. When meeting pressure transition zone and high pressure layer that would cause under compaction, the porosity would higher and density would lower than normal condition. Because the density of mudstone has that change regulation, it can be measured by mudstone debris which digs from underground by designed well height. Setting normal pressure formation's mudstone density curve as base line, other lines which are excursion form this base line will be seemed as pressure abnormal. The higher excursions that curve have, the higher abnormal pressure the layer gets. The start point of excursion is the peak point of transition zone.
Organic-glass cylindrical, mirror diagraph, fixed frame, stainless steel and top tray, floater, hammer for calm and zero knob etc
♦ Compositionand technical indicators of instrument
♦ Composition of instrument
2N01G type density analyzer of mudstoneconsists of: organic glass cylinder, scale subdivision in the mirror plane, fixing mirror bracket, stainless steel pole, floater, damping hammer, zero setting knob and so on. ♦ Technical indicators ♦ Measuring range: 1-3g/cm3The min
When measuring, it is required to use pure mudstone, excluding sandstone, limestoneand other rocks. Carefully select several new mudstone fragments as samples (new debris from the well bottom shall be angular and small) in the upstream of vibration screen and it shall be noticed that the mudstone sample cannot be soaked by mud fluid. Carefully blot up the surface of debris using filter paper (don’t heat), measure its density immediately and don’t dry the debris using dry oven or heater.
After add several drops of cleaning agent (or use anionic detergent and soap suds, thepurpose is to lubricate the contact between the upper of stainless steel pole and the watersurface to measured parts no air bubble and water bubble so than correct readings can beobtained)to the pure fresh water, inject into the organic glass tube, the water surface isabout 4cm from the top, put the floater in the water, no air bubbles are available on thesubmersed; if available, rotate the floater to eliminate them, when the floater is stable,its top shall be 1cm at least below the water surface (not more than 2cm), then press the tray downwards until the damping hammer contacts the bottom, here the tray is 1cm at least above the water surface, otherwise some water shall be removed.
♦ Before measuring, it is required to adjust “zero position” and accurately adjust using“zero position” knob, shown in Figure 2-2(a). ♦ Put the mudstone sample in the tray, after the damping hammer is stable (cannot contactthe bottom of cylinder), read a scale value L1, shown in Figure 2-2(b), then place themudstone sample in the tray on the floater in the water, after it is stable, read a new scalevalue L2, shown in 2-2(c), the density d of mudstone can be calculated by the followingformula:
formula: d = L1 /(L1-L2)
Note: measure the position of floater using the graduated scale in the mirror, eye ball, needle point in the tray and imaging of needle point in the mirror shall on a same horizontal plane when measuring, and then read corresponding value on the scale.
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